Introduction to Safety Standard
History of Safety Standards
Organizational Diagram of Safety Standards
Risk Assesment
The Idea of Performance Level
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History of Safety Standards

Background of Increased Focus on Safety

In 1947, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was signed and published by a collaborative group of 23 countries working to establish smooth international trade. Thereafter, in the “GATT Uruguay Round” of 1994, consent was reached for revisions to this agreement to make clear and strengthen its responsibilities. In the same year, the “TBT Agreement” was established. Taking on the establishment of the TBT Agreement, the WTO (World Trade Organization) was established in the following year as an international organization whose goal is free trade. As a result, the TBT Agreement was integrated into the WTO Agreement, and these are expressed as the “WTO/TBT Agreement.” According to this “WTO/TBT Agreement,” member nations are required to establish standards such as compulsory standards, voluntary standards, and conformance assessment processes by integrating these standards with international standards such as the ISO and IEC standards.

Reason for Using ISO/IEC Standards

By making facilities and machines conform to ISO/IEC standards, it became possible to, in general cases, make these facilities and machines conform to the technical criteria of various countries in order to increase commonality around the world and thus allow for fewer restrictions to worldwide trade. (Requirements unique to each country are also recognized, so the above is an explanation of the principle.)

  • *1 IEC 61508...Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safetyrelated systems
  • *2 ISO 12100-1/2...Safety of machinery basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 1:Basic terminology, methodology and Part 2: Technical principles
  • *3 ISO 13849-1:2006...Safety-related parts of control systems - Part 1: General principles for design
  • *4 ISO 12100:2010...A standard that integrated, without making changes to, the technical details of the ISO 12100 series established in 2003 and ISO 14121-1 established in 2007
  • *5 ISO 13855:2010...Positioning of safeguards with respect to the approach speeds of parts of the human body
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